Kotlin launch原理全面分析

一、协程是如何创建的

launch、async 可以创建、启动新的协程,那么协程到底是如何创建的?

runBlocking {
        println(Thread.currentThread().name)
        launch {
            println(Thread.currentThread().name)
            delay(100L)
        }
        Thread.sleep(1000L)
    }
Log
main @coroutine#1
main @coroutine#2
Process finished with exit code 0

runBlocking{} 启动了第一个协程,launch{} 启动了第二个协程。

协程启动的基础API

public fun <T> (suspend () -> T).createCoroutine(
    completion: Continuation<T>
): Continuation<Unit> =
    SafeContinuation(createCoroutineUnintercepted(completion).intercepted(), COROUTINE_SUSPENDED)
public fun <T> (suspend () -> T).startCoroutine(
    completion: Continuation<T>
) {
    createCoroutineUnintercepted(completion).intercepted().resume(Unit)
}

createCoroutine{}、startCoroutine{}就是 Kotlin 协程当中最基础的两个创建协程的 API。启动协程有三种常见的方式:launch、runBlocking、async。它们其实属于协程中间层提供的 API,而它们的底层都调用了“基础层”的协程 API。

createCoroutine{}、startCoroutine{}是扩展函数,其扩展接收者类型是一个函数类型:suspend () -> T,代表了“无参数,返回值为 T 的挂起函数或者 Lambda”。而对于函数本身,它们两个都接收一个 Continuation<T> 类型的参数,其中一个函数,还会返回一个 Continuation<Unit> 类型的返回值。

val block = suspend {
    println("Hello")
    delay(1000L)
    println("World!")
    "Result"
}
fun testLaunch2() {
    val continuation = object : Continuation<String> {
        override val context: CoroutineContext
            get() = EmptyCoroutineContext
        override fun resumeWith(result: Result<String>) {
            println("Result:" + result.getOrNull())
        }
    }
    block.startCoroutine(continuation)
}
fun main() {
    testLaunch2()
    Thread.sleep(2000L)
}
Log
Hello
World!
Result:Result
Process finished with exit code 0

类型为suspend () -> T的函数或者Lambda 表达式可以用 block.startCoroutine() 来启动协程了。

Continuation 有两种用法,一种是在实现挂起函数的时候,用于传递挂起函数的执行结果;另一种是在调用挂起函数的时候,以匿名内部类的方式,用于接收挂起函数的执行结果。

使用 createCoroutine() 这个方法其实上面代码的逻辑:

fun testLaunch3() {
    val continuation = object : Continuation<String> {
        override val context: CoroutineContext
            get() = EmptyCoroutineContext
        override fun resumeWith(result: Result<String>) {
            println("Result:" + result.getOrNull())
        }
    }
    val coroutinue = block.createCoroutine(continuation)
    coroutinue.resume(Unit)
}
val block = suspend {
    println("Hello")
    delay(1000L)
    println("World!")
    "Result"
}
fun main() {
    testLaunch3()
    Thread.sleep(2000L)
}
Log
Hello
World!
Result:Result
Process finished with exit code 0

createCoroutine() 创建一个协程,先不启动。调用 resume() 才能启动。createCoroutine()、startCoroutine() 的源代码差别也并不大,只是前者没有调用 resume(),而后者调用了 resume()。startCoroutine() 之所以可以创建并同时启动协程的原因就在于,它在源码中直接调用了 resume(Unit)。

将 startCoroutine()转换为Java:

package com.example.myapplication.testcoroutinue;
import kotlin.Metadata;
import kotlin.Result;
import kotlin.ResultKt;
import kotlin.Unit;
import kotlin.coroutines.Continuation;
import kotlin.coroutines.ContinuationKt;
import kotlin.coroutines.CoroutineContext;
import kotlin.coroutines.EmptyCoroutineContext;
import kotlin.coroutines.intrinsics.IntrinsicsKt;
import kotlin.jvm.functions.Function1;
import kotlin.jvm.internal.Intrinsics;
import kotlinx.coroutines.DelayKt;
import org.jetbrains.annotations.NotNull;
import org.jetbrains.annotations.Nullable;
@Metadata(
   mv = {1, 6, 0},
   k = 2,
   d1 = {"\u0000\u001e\n\u0000\n\u0002\u0018\u0002\n\u0002\u0018\u0002\n\u0002\u0010\u000e\n\u0002\u0010\u0000\n\u0002\b\u0004\n\u0002\u0010\u0002\n\u0002\b\u0002\u001a\u0006\u0010\b\u001a\u00020\t\u001a\u0006\u0010\n\u001a\u00020\t\",\u0010\u0000\u001a\u0018\b\u0001\u0012\n\u0012\b\u0012\u0004\u0012\u00020\u00030\u0002\u0012\u0006\u0012\u0004\u0018\u00010\u00040\u0001ø\u0001\u0000¢\u0006\n\n\u0002\u0010\u0007\u001a\u0004\b\u0005\u0010\u0006\u0082\u0002\u0004\n\u0002\b\u0019¨\u0006\u000b"},
   d2 = {"block", "Lkotlin/Function1;", "Lkotlin/coroutines/Continuation;", "", "", "getBlock", "()Lkotlin/jvm/functions/Function1;", "Lkotlin/jvm/functions/Function1;", "main", "", "testLaunch2", "My_Application.app.main"}
)
public final class TestCoroutinue888Kt {
// Kotlin 为 block 变量生成的静态变量
   @NotNull
   private static final Function1 block;
   public static final void main() {
      testLaunch2();
      Thread.sleep(2000L);
   }
   // $FF: synthetic method
   public static void main(String[] var0) {
      main();
   }
    // Kotlin 为 block 变量生成的静态变量以及方法
   @NotNull
   public static final Function1 getBlock() {
      return block;
   }
   public static final void testLaunch2() {
//continuation 变量对应的匿名内部类
      <undefinedtype> continuation = new Continuation() {
         @NotNull
         public CoroutineContext getContext() {
            return (CoroutineContext)EmptyCoroutineContext.INSTANCE;
         }
         public void resumeWith(@NotNull Object result) {
            String var2 = "Result:" + (String)(Result.isFailure-impl(result) ? null : result);
            System.out.println(var2);
         }
      };
//block.startCoroutine(continuation) 转换成了ContinuationKt.startCoroutine(block, (Continuation)continuation)
      ContinuationKt.startCoroutine(block, (Continuation)continuation);
   }
   static {
    //实现了 Continuation 接口
      Function1 var0 = (Function1)(new Function1((Continuation)null) {
         int label;
//invokeSuspend()为协程状态机逻辑
         @Nullable
         public final Object invokeSuspend(@NotNull Object $result) {
            Object var3 = IntrinsicsKt.getCOROUTINE_SUSPENDED();
            String var2;
            switch(this.label) {
            case 0:
               ResultKt.throwOnFailure($result);
               var2 = "Hello";
               System.out.println(var2);
               this.label = 1;
               if (DelayKt.delay(1000L, this) == var3) {
                  return var3;
               }
               break;
            case 1:
               ResultKt.throwOnFailure($result);
               break;
            default:
               throw new IllegalStateException("call to 'resume' before 'invoke' with coroutine");
            }
            var2 = "World!";
            System.out.println(var2);
            return "Result";
         }
         @NotNull
         public final Continuation create(@NotNull Continuation completion) {
            Intrinsics.checkNotNullParameter(completion, "completion");
            Function1 var2 = new <anonymous constructor>(completion);
            return var2;
         }
         public final Object invoke(Object var1) {
            return ((<undefinedtype>)this.create((Continuation)var1)).invokeSuspend(Unit.INSTANCE);
         }
      });
      block = var0;
   }
}
public fun <T> (suspend () -> T).startCoroutine(
    completion: Continuation<T>
) {
createCoroutineUnintercepted(completion).intercepted().resume(Unit)
}

在 startCoroutine() 当中,首先会调用 createCoroutineUnintercepted() 方法。

public expect fun <T> (suspend () -> T).createCoroutineUnintercepted(
    completion: Continuation<T>
): Continuation<Unit>

代码中的 expect,一种声明,由于 Kotlin 是面向多个平台的,具体的实现,就需要在特定的平台实现。

public actual fun <T> (suspend () -> T).createCoroutineUnintercepted(
    completion: Continuation<T>
): Continuation<Unit> {
    val probeCompletion = probeCoroutineCreated(completion)
    return if (this is BaseContinuationImpl)
        create(probeCompletion)
    else
        createCoroutineFromSuspendFunction(probeCompletion) {
            (this as Function1<Continuation<T>, Any?>).invoke(it)
        }
}

actual,代表了 createCoroutineUnintercepted() 在 JVM 平台的实现。

createCoroutineUnintercepted() 是一个扩展函数,this代表了 block 变量。(this is BaseContinuationImpl) 条件为ture,就会调用 create(probeCompletion)。

public open fun create(completion: Continuation<*>): Continuation<Unit> {
    throw UnsupportedOperationException("create(Continuation) has not been overridden")
}

在默认情况下,这个 create() 方法是会抛出异常的。

@NotNull
         public final Continuation create(@NotNull Continuation completion) {
            Intrinsics.checkNotNullParameter(completion, "completion");
            Function1 var2 = new <anonymous constructor>(completion);
            return var2;
         }

返回了Continuation 对象。

public fun <T> (suspend () -> T).startCoroutine(
    completion: Continuation<T>
) {
createCoroutineUnintercepted(completion).intercepted().resume(Unit)
}

intercepted() 在JVM 实现如下:

public actual fun <T> Continuation<T>.intercepted(): Continuation<T> =
    (this as? ContinuationImpl)?.intercepted() ?: this

将 Continuation 强转成了 ContinuationImpl,调用了它的 intercepted()。

ContinuationImpl 的源代码:

internal abstract class ContinuationImpl(
    completion: Continuation<Any?>?,
    private val _context: CoroutineContext?
) : BaseContinuationImpl(completion) {
    @Transient
    private var intercepted: Continuation<Any?>? = null
    public fun intercepted(): Continuation<Any?> =
        intercepted
            ?: (context[ContinuationInterceptor]?.interceptContinuation(this) ?: this)
                .also { intercepted = it }
}

通过 ContinuationInterceptor,对 Continuation 进行拦截,从而将程序的执行逻辑派发到特定的线程之上。

resume(Unit):

public fun <T> (suspend () -> T).startCoroutine(
    completion: Continuation<T>
) {
createCoroutineUnintercepted(completion).intercepted().resume(Unit)
}

resume(Unit),作用其实就相当于启动了协程。

二、launch 是如何启动协程的

fun main() {
    testLaunch11()
    Thread.sleep(2000L)
}
fun testLaunch11() {
    val coroutineScope = CoroutineScope(Job())
    coroutineScope.launch {
        println("Hello")
        delay(1000L)
        println("World!")
    }
}
Log
Hello
World!
Process finished with exit code 0

转Java

package com.example.myapplication.testcoroutinue;
import kotlin.Metadata;
import kotlin.ResultKt;
import kotlin.Unit;
import kotlin.coroutines.Continuation;
import kotlin.coroutines.CoroutineContext;
import kotlin.coroutines.intrinsics.IntrinsicsKt;
import kotlin.jvm.functions.Function2;
import kotlin.jvm.internal.Intrinsics;
import kotlinx.coroutines.BuildersKt;
import kotlinx.coroutines.CoroutineScope;
import kotlinx.coroutines.CoroutineScopeKt;
import kotlinx.coroutines.CoroutineStart;
import kotlinx.coroutines.DelayKt;
import kotlinx.coroutines.Job;
import kotlinx.coroutines.JobKt;
import org.jetbrains.annotations.NotNull;
import org.jetbrains.annotations.Nullable;
@Metadata(
   mv = {1, 6, 0},
   k = 2,
   d1 = {"\u0000\n\n\u0000\n\u0002\u0010\u0002\n\u0002\b\u0002\u001a\u0006\u0010\u0000\u001a\u00020\u0001\u001a\u0006\u0010\u0002\u001a\u00020\u0001¨\u0006\u0003"},
   d2 = {"main", "", "testLaunch11", "My_Application.app.main"}
)
public final class TestCoroutinue999Kt {
   public static final void main() {
      testLaunch11();
      Thread.sleep(2000L);
   }
   // $FF: synthetic method
   public static void main(String[] var0) {
      main();
   }
   public static final void testLaunch11() {
      CoroutineScope coroutineScope = CoroutineScopeKt.CoroutineScope((CoroutineContext)JobKt.Job$default((Job)null, 1, (Object)null));
//对应 launch 当中的 Lambda。
      BuildersKt.launch$default(coroutineScope, (CoroutineContext)null, (CoroutineStart)null, (Function2)(new Function2((Continuation)null) {
         int label;
         @Nullable
         public final Object invokeSuspend(@NotNull Object $result) {
            Object var3 = IntrinsicsKt.getCOROUTINE_SUSPENDED();
            String var2;
            switch(this.label) {
            case 0:
               ResultKt.throwOnFailure($result);
               var2 = "Hello";
               System.out.println(var2);
               this.label = 1;
               if (DelayKt.delay(1000L, this) == var3) {
                  return var3;
               }
               break;
            case 1:
               ResultKt.throwOnFailure($result);
               break;
            default:
               throw new IllegalStateException("call to 'resume' before 'invoke' with coroutine");
            }
            var2 = "World!";
            System.out.println(var2);
            return Unit.INSTANCE;
         }
         @NotNull
         public final Continuation create(@Nullable Object value, @NotNull Continuation completion) {
            Intrinsics.checkNotNullParameter(completion, "completion");
            Function2 var3 = new <anonymous constructor>(completion);
            return var3;
         }
         public final Object invoke(Object var1, Object var2) {
            return ((<undefinedtype>)this.create(var1, (Continuation)var2)).invokeSuspend(Unit.INSTANCE);
         }
      }), 3, (Object)null);
   }
}

launch源码

public fun CoroutineScope.launch(
    context: CoroutineContext = EmptyCoroutineContext,
    start: CoroutineStart = CoroutineStart.DEFAULT,
    block: suspend CoroutineScope.() -> Unit
): Job {
    //launch 会根据传入的 CoroutineContext 创建出新的 Context。
    val newContext = newCoroutineContext(context)
    //launch 会根据传入的启动模式来创建对应的协程对象。这里有两种,一种是标准的,一种是懒加载的。
    val coroutine = if (start.isLazy)
        LazyStandaloneCoroutine(newContext, block) else
        StandaloneCoroutine(newContext, active = true)
    //启动协程。
    coroutine.start(start, coroutine, block)
    return coroutine
}

coroutine.start() :

public abstract class AbstractCoroutine<in T>(
    parentContext: CoroutineContext,
    initParentJob: Boolean,
    active: Boolean
) : JobSupport(active), Job, Continuation<T>, CoroutineScope {
    public fun <R> start(start: CoroutineStart, receiver: R, block: suspend R.() -> T) {
        start(block, receiver, this)
    }
}

AbstractCoroutine.kt 对应协程的抽象逻辑。AbstractCoroutine 的start() 方法,用于启动协程。

public enum class CoroutineStart {
    public operator fun <T> invoke(block: suspend () -> T, completion: Continuation<T>): Unit =
        when (this) {
            DEFAULT -> block.startCoroutineCancellable(completion)
            ATOMIC -> block.startCoroutine(completion)
            UNDISPATCHED -> block.startCoroutineUndispatched(completion)
            LAZY -> Unit // will start lazily
        }
}

start(block, receiver, this),进入 CoroutineStart.invoke()。

invoke() 方法当中,根据 launch 传入的启动模式,以不同的方式启动协程。当启动模式是 ATOMIC 的时候,就会调用 block.startCoroutine(completion)。startCoroutineUndispatched(completion) 和 startCoroutineCancellable(completion),只是在 startCoroutine() 的基础上增加了一些额外的功能而已。前者代表启动协程以后就不会被分发,后者代表启动以后可以响应取消。

startCoroutineCancellable(completion)

public fun <T> (suspend () -> T).startCoroutineCancellable(completion: Continuation<T>): Unit = runSafely(completion) {
    createCoroutineUnintercepted(completion).intercepted().resumeCancellableWith(Result.success(Unit))
}
public actual fun <T> (suspend () -> T).createCoroutineUnintercepted(
    completion: Continuation<T>
): Continuation<Unit> {
    val probeCompletion = probeCoroutineCreated(completion)
    return if (this is BaseContinuationImpl)
        create(probeCompletion)
    else
        createCoroutineFromSuspendFunction(probeCompletion) {
            (this as Function1<Continuation<T>, Any?>).invoke(it)
        }
}

startCoroutineCancellable() 的源代码,会调用 createCoroutineUnintercepted(),然后调用 create(probeCompletion),然后最终会调用create() 方法。launch 这个 API,只是对协程的基础元素 startCoroutine() 等方法进行了一些封装而已。

作者:且听真言 原文地址:https://blog.csdn.net/zhangying1994/article/details/127880236

%s 个评论

要回复文章请先登录注册